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Maistiniai augalai

Augalai kaupia visas žmogui būtinas medžiagas – baltymus, angliavandenius, riebalus, vitaminus, organines rūgštis, mineralines medžiagas, vandenį ir kitas organizmo statybai bei jo gyvybingumui palaikyti reikalingas medžiagas. Be to, augalai sintetina medžiagų, pagerinančių maisto skonį, virškinimą, žadinančių apetitą. Manoma, jog įprastai apie 62% paros kalorijų žmogus turi gauti su augaliniu maistu, o sergant kai kuriomis ligomis, pavyzdžiui, ateroskleroze, podagra, rekomenduojama dieta, kurios šis maistas sudaro esminę dalį. Nemažai yra žmonių vegetarų, kurie vartoja tik augalinį maistą.

salotos
salotos

Dabar pasaulyje maistui vartojama virš 2000 augalų rūšių, iš kurių apie 600 sukultūrinta.
Maistiniai augalai įvairiai grupuojami, jų sąvoka būna platesnė ir siauresnė (neretai, pavyzdžiui, iš jų išskiriama prieskoninių augalų grupė). Jie gali būti skirstomi į grupes, atsižvelgiant į pagrindines sintetinamas medžiagas, taigi į baltyminguosius (žirnis, pupelės, pupa), aliejinguosius (saulėgrąža, linas, kanapė, rapsas), cukringuosius (cukriniai runkeliai, cukranendrė), krakmolinguosius (kvietys, bulvė, grikis). Pagal maistui vartojamas dalis jie skirstomi į grūdinius ir sėklinius (kvietys, kukurūzas, žirnis, kalendra), vaisinius ir uoginius (žemuogė, bruknė, obelis, šermukšnis, lazdynas), šakniavaisinius (burokėliai, morka, krienas), gumbavaisinius (bulvė, topinambas), šakniastiebinius (nendrė), svogūninius (svogūnas, česnakas), lapinius (kopūstas, salota, rūgštynė, dilgėlė), stiebinius (smidras, cukranendrė), žiedinius (žiedinis kopūstas, brokolis). Be to, dar galima grupuoti pagal maistinę paskirtį ir vartojimą (pavyzdžiui, naudojami duonai, kruopoms, cukrui gaminti), pagal gyvenimo formas (vienamečiai, dvimečiai, daugiamečiai, žoliniai, mediniai), pagal šilumos poreikį (subtropiniai, vidutinio klimato ir pan.).

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