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Guminiai augalai

Kai kurie augalai, dažniausiai pažeistose vietose, išskiria stingstančių sulčių, vadinamų guma ar lipais. Jų išskiria akacijos, pvz.: Acacia arabica, augančios tropikuose ir subtropikuose. Jų lipai vadinami gummi. Stingstančių sulčių išskiria ir Vidurinėje Azijoje, bei Balkanuose augančios kulkšnės (Astragalus piletocladus, erinaceus, microcephalus), taip pat mums gerai žinomos vyšnios, slyvos, persikai, migdolai, abrikosai, iš spygliuočių juos išskiria maumedžiai. Panašių į lipus medžiagų turi kai kurie žemesnieji augalai, pavyzdžiui, rudieji ir raudonieji dumbliai, taip pat specialiai auginamos Leuconostoc genties bakterijos.

migdolų riešutai
migdolų riešutai

Lipai yra lipnios, gleivingos, tįstančios, spalvotos arba bespalvės, pusiau skaidrios medžiagos. Jie susidaro ištirpus arba išbrinkus vandenyje monosacharidų polimerams (gliukozei, galaktozei, arabinozei, ramnozei, gliukurono rūgščiai, ksilozei ir kt.). Būna gumbelių, lašo arba varveklio pavidalo.
Lipai buvo vartojami maisto, popieriaus, lengvojoje pramonėje ir kaip klijai, standinantys emulsijas, suspensijas, taip pat kaip didelio klampumo tirpalai. Taip pat, kaip vaistai suerzinus skrandžio gleivinę, pristabdo medžiagų skverbimąsi į kraują, nes reikalingi piliulių ir emulsijų gamyboje. Kai kurie lipai – gumiarabikas, agaragaras, dekstrinai ir kiti plačiai vartojami buityje, terpėms gaminti, tekstilės pramonėje ir kitur.

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