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Vaistažolių ruošimas

Neapdairiai ruošiant vaistažoles, nukenčia nemaža dalis naudingųjų veikliųjų medžiagų. Paprastai žaliavą vaistams reikia ruošti tada, kai joje būna daugiausiai veikliųjų medžiagų. Žolinių augalų antžeminėje dalyje veikliųjų medžiagų daugiausiai būna prieš žydėjimą arba tik pradėjus žydėti, šaknyse ir šakniastiebiuose – baigiantis augalo vegetacijai, žievėje – pavasarį ir rudenį, lapuose – kai jie pilnai išauga, pumpuruose – anksti pavasarį, žieduose – vos tik pražydusiuose, vaisiuose – visiškai prinokusiuose arba nokstančiuose.

Pumpurai skinami kovo balandžio mėnesiais, kai jie tik pradeda brinkti, bet dar būna neišsprogę.

Lapai skinami visiškai išaugę ir normalaus dydžio. Negalima skinti pageltusių, apdžiūvusių, ar ligų ir kenkėjų apgadintų lapų. Jie skinami giedrą dieną, nukritus rasai, ir sausi. Nuskintų lapų negalima suspausti, suspausti lapai kaista ir pradeda irti vertingos medžiagos.

vaistažolių džiovinimasŽolė renkama su stiebu, lapais ir žiedais, ruošiama pradedant žiedui žydėti ar žydint.

Žiedai skinami tik ką pražydę, nukritus rasai, giedrą dieną ir sausi. Nuskintų žiedų negalima sudėti storu sluoksniu, suspausti ar ilgiau laikyti nesudžiautų.

Vaisiai ir sėklos renkami visiškai prinokę. Byrančiomis sėklomis augalai pjaunami arba raunami ryte su rasa, vaisiams nevisiškai prinokus, rišami į sruogas ir džiovinami. Sultingi vaisiai tokie kaip mėlynės, avietės – renkami sausi, nuo aviečių nurenkami žiedsosčiai. Nuskinti dedami į negilias pintines.

Žievė lupama pavasarį, kai lengvai atkeliama nuo medienos. Senų augalų žievė vaistams netinka. Žievė lupama nuo nupjautų stiebų arba šaknų, pailgom juostelėm. Žievė atkeliama nuo medienos geriausia mediniu arba plastmasiniu pleištu, peiliu, nerekomenduojama naudotis metaliniais, o ypač rūdijančiais įrankiais. Paprastai žievė ruošiama kirtavietėse arba kirtimui numatytose vietose.

Šakniastiebiai, šaknys ir gumbai kasami rudenį, kai sunyksta antžeminė augalo dalis arba anksti pavasarį, prieš atželiant augalams.

Požeminę dalį galima ruošti bet kokiomis meteorologinėmis sąlygomis. Iškasus nupurtomos žemės, nupjaunamos stiebų ir lapų liekanos bei plonos šaknelės ir nuplaunama šaltu vandeniu.

Kai kurių augalų tokių kaip ajero, nulupama šakniastiebio žievelė, o vėliau šakniastiebis supjaustomas skersai ir išilgai gabalėliais.

Surinktą žaliavą reikia tuojau pat padžiauti, o kai kurių rūšių žaliava perdirbama tik ką surinkta ir nedžiovinta.

Dažniausiai džiovinama nuo tiesioginių saulės spindulių apsaugotoje ir gerai vėdinamoje patalpoje -pastogėje, palėpėje, daržinėse, arba specialiuose džiovintuvuose. Tiesioginiai saulės spinduliai ardo chlorofilą bei vertingas veikliąsias medžiagas. Labai patogu vaistažoles džiovinti džiovyklose, nes galima reguliuoti temperatūrą. Žaliava, kurioje būna alkaloidų, glikozidų, gleivių, rauginių medžiagų ar saponinų, džiovinama 50 – 60 °C, eterinių aliejų 35 – 40 °C temperatūroje. Sultingus vaisius ir uogas pirmiausia reikia apvytinti neaukštoje, o baigti džiovinti 70 – 80 °C temperatūroje.

Kiekvienos rūšies žaliava atskirai pakuojama į drobinius maišelius, medines dėžes arba į kitas kvėpuojančias pakuotes ir laikomi sausoje ir perpučiamoje 10 – 15 °C temperatūros patalpoje. Ypatingai sausoje patalpoje reikia laikyti uogas. Džiovintas vaistažolių nerekomenduojama laikyti daugiau nei 2 metus.

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