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Gutaperčiniai augalai

Gutaperčiniai augalai kaupia gutaperčą sukietėjusias į pieną panašias sultis. Gutaperča pagal cheminę sudėti ideali kaučiukui, tačiau kieta medžiaga. Gutaperča sudaryta iš angliavandenio gutos, baltyminės medžiagos ir įvairių dervų. Nuo gutos ir dervų santykio priklauso gutaperčios vertingumas. Vertingesnė ta gutaperča, kurioje yra mažiau dervų. Augaluose gutaperča kaupiasi pientakiuose kaip augalo sultys.

ožekšnisGutaperča nepraleidžia vandens ir elektros srovės. Vulkanizuojama kaip natūralusis kaučiukas. Gutaperča naudojama povandeniniams kabeliams izoliuoti, atspariems rūgštims indams gaminti, iš jos daromi golfo kamuoliukai.

Vertingiausi gutaperčiniai augalai yra vinkšnalapė eukomija, gutaperčinis medis ir kiti. Vinkšnalapė eukomija auga Kinijoje, 20a pradžioje įvežta į Rusiją. Gutaperča šiame augale randama visose augalo dalyse: lapuose, stiebų žievėje, šaknų žievėje. Iš hektaro plantacijos surenkama 200—250 kg gutaperčios. Gutaperčinis medis auga Indonezijoje. Auginamas vakarų ir pietų azijoje, javos saloje ir kitur. Iš jo šaknų gaunama labai kokybiška gutaperča.

Lietuvoje vertingiausi savaime augantys gutaperčiniai augalai priklauso ožekšnio genčiai. Gutaperča kaupiasi ožekšnio šaknyse ir stiebo žievėje, kurio čia susikaupia iki 12 – 15%.

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