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Dekoratyviniai augalai

Dekoratyvinių augalų savybes sunku apibrėžti, kadangi dekoratyvumo požymiai suprantami labai įvairiai ir sunku visa tai apibrėžti. Dekoratyvūs augalai puošia žmogaus aplinką, dažniausiai puošnūs augalų žiedai, bet žiedai žydi palyginus trumpai, tad daugelis dekoratyvių augalų rūšių vertinami dėl gražių ir ilgai išsilaikančių lapų, gražių ir įdomių vaisių ar dėl jų bendro įdomaus pavidalo, visų dalių tobulos sandaros. Yra nuolat žaliuojančių, arba vadinamųjų visažalių, rūšių.

dekoratyvus augalai sodybojePirmiausiai dekoratyviniai augalai skirstomi į dvi stambias grupes: sumedėjusius dekoratyvinius augalus ir žolinius augalus. Iš sumedėjusių dekoratyvinių augalų išskiriami medžiai ir krūmai, o iš žolinių – daugiamečiai, dvimečiai ir vienmečiai dekoratyvūs augalai. Pagal auginimo vietą ir tikslą dekoratyvūs augalai gali būti parkų, gėlynų, žolynų, žaliųjų kilimų, gatvių, kelių, kapų objektams apželdinti tinkami ir kitokios augalų grupės. Neretai dekoratyvių augalų auginimas būna susijęs ir su sanitarijos bei higienos reikalavimais.

Tiksliai nežinoma, kada žmonės pradėjo sodinti ir auginti dekoratyvinius augalus. Vieni pirmųjų dekoratyvių augalų – rožės ir lotosai, buvo pradėti auginti maždaug 4000, lelijos, narcizai ir jazminai 700 – 300 m. prieš Kr. Pasaulyje auginama net keletas tūkstančių vietos bei introdukuotų dekoratyvinių augalų rūšių ir dar nesuskaičiuojama įvairovė jų formų. Lietuvoje auginama per 200 dekoratyvinių medžių bei krūmų ir apie 400 žolinių augalų rūšių, neskaitant kambarinių augalų. Nors vietinių dekoratyvių augalų rūšių yra gana daug, tačiau labiau mėgstami yra svetimšaliai dekoratyvūs augalai. Svetimšaliai dažniausiai puošnesni už daugumą vietos dekoratyvių augalų, bet atvežtiniams augalams reikia nepalyginamai daugiau priežiūros, jie mažiau atsparūs ligoms bei kenkėjams.

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