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Dažiniai augalai

Dažiniai augalai įvairiose savo dalyse kaupia dažinius organinius junginius, kurie panaudojami įvairioms medžiagoms dažyti. Šie junginiai, dažniausiai glikozidai, kaupiasi augalo stiebuose (mediena, žievė), lapuose, žieduose, vaisiuose, sėklose, šaknyse, ar ląstelių skysčiuose. Yra žinoma daugiau nei 2000 augalinių dažų, tačiau dažniausiai naudojami apie 130. Augant chemijos pramonei, augalinius dažus daugelyje sričių pakeitė gerokai pigesni sintetiniai, nors kai kur, pavyzdžiui, maisto pramonėje, kosmetikoje, aukštos kokybės kilimų gamyboje, dažai iš augalų yra naudojami.

dažantys augalaiDaugiausia pagrindinių dažinių augalų, iš kurių gaminami dažai, auga tropikuose ir subtropikuose. Vertingi dažai (lakmusas) gaunami iš kerpių. Šie dažai labai jautrūs aplinkos rūgštingumui, todėl naudojami kaip indikatorius rūgštinei reakcijai nustatyti.

Lietuvoje yra nemažai augalų, kuriais galima dažyti įvairias medžiagas. Kai kuriais atvejais to paties augalo dažais galima dažyti medžiagas skirtingomis spalvomis. Tai priklauso nuo pridedamų specialių medžiagų. Pavyzdžiui, kadagio uogomis galima nudažyti geltonai, rudai, žalsvai, pilkai, beržo lapais – geltonai, juodai, žaliai, rudai, juodalksnio žieve – raudonai ir juodai, jonažolės žiedais geltonai, žaliai, rausvai, mėlynės uogomis dažoma violetine spalva, o lapais ir šakelėmis – rudai.

Žalias, pagrindinis augalų pigmentas chlorofilas dažymui nenaudojamas, taip kaip ir dažni spalvingų žiedų pigmentai nes jie dažniausiai būna nepatvarūs.

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