Apie viską po truputį

Konservatizmo ir liberalizmo ideologijų gimimas

Ideologija yra, kaip rašė Robertas Nisbet’as, – “pakankamai darni moralinių, ekonominių, socialinių ir kultūrinių idėjų visuma, tvirtai ir akivaizdžiai susijusi su politika bei politine galia /…/. Priešingai negu laikina nuomonių samplaika, ideologija gyvuoja netrumpą laiko tarpą”

Didelę įtaką ideologijoms susiformuoti turėjo Didžioji Prancūzų revoliucija. Anglas Edmundas Burke (liet. Bekas arba Berkas) ir jo 1790 m. išleista knyga “Apmąstymai apie revoliuciją Prancūzijoje” tapo konservatoriams tuo, kuo vėliau socialistams – K.Marksas ir jo “Kapitalas”. E.Burke bandė išsiaiškinti, kodėl, pakilusi į kovą su tironija, revoliucija pati tapo dar didesne tironija, kada nedidelė grupė žmonių, prisidengusi liaudies vardu, įgijo tokią valdžią, apie kurią absoliutūs monarchai tik svajojo, o revoliucijos skelbtos idėjos apie laisvę, lygybę, brolybę nebuvo įgyvendintos, bet virto organizuotu, tačiau nebekontroliuojamu teroru, kurio simboliu ilgam liko giljotina. E.Burke buvo 1688 m. Anglijos ir 1776 m. JAV revoliucijų šalininkas, gynė airių bei indų teises nuo Britanijos kolonizatorių, tačiau Didžiąją Prancūzų revoliuciją jis pasmerkė. Tarp šių revoliucijų E.Burke įžvelgė esminius skirtumus. Jei Šiaurės Amerikos revoliucijai vadovavo žinomi ir visuomenėje gerbiami žmonės, tai Prancūzijoje – iki revoliucijos negirdėti “literatai”, kuriems norint tapti tikrais literatais, kaip rašė kitas konservatorių ideologas A. de Torqueville’is, “tereikėjo geriau išmanyti rašybą”. E.Burke Prancūzijos revoliuciją laikė kova ne dėl laisvės, o dėl absoliučios valdžios, kurios siekė neturintys “indėlio visuomenėje” veikėjai, pavirtę visuomenės priešais. Amerikos revoliucionieriai siekė konkretiems žmonėms laisvės gyventi pagal savo papročius ir tradicijas, kurias bandė paminti britai. Prancūzų revoliucionieriai, prisiskaitę švietimo amžiaus filosofų, tikėjo žmogaus proto visagalybe ir siekė sukurti tobulą “geometrijos” dėsniais pagrįstą santvarką. Žmogus jiems buvo abstrakti sąvoka, turinti prisiderinti prie jų kuriamos laimingo ir tobulo gyvenimo schemos. Revoliucinis Visuomenės saugumo komitetas skelbė: “Reikia visiškai performuoti liaudį, kurią norima padaryti laisvą, – sugriauti prietarus, pakeisti jos įpročius, apriboti poreikius, išrauti ydas, išgryninti troškimus”.

liberalai demokrataiTodėl E.Burke rašė, kad jakobinai su prancūzais elgėsi kaip “įsiveržusi priešo kariuomenė” ar Britanijos Ost-Indijos bendrovė su čiabuviais. Jakobinai siekė racionalizuoti visą šalies gyvenimą ne tik nuo monetų, svorio vienetų ir matų, bet iki švietimo, nuosavybės, valdžios, šeimos, religijos. Jie nesitenkino atėmę iš aristokratų nuosavybę. Bet kokia bendra nuosavybė, ar tai būtų gildijų, bažnyčios, vienuolynų, šeimos ir kita, buvo naikinama, ją suvalstybinant ar individualizuojant.

E Burke’as įrodinėjo, kad Prancūzijos revoliucija, įvedusi madą politinius sprendimus pasverti individualiu žmogaus protu, paniekinusi per šimtmečius susiformavusios tradicijos išmintį, pasirinko drastišką ir bereikalingų aukų pareikalavusį kelią reformuoti visuomenę. Persekiodama kai kurias pasirinktas visuomenes klases, kaip aristokratija ar dvasininkija, ji buvo taip pat toli nuo savo skelbiamų laisvės ir lygybės principų kaip ir trečiąjį luomą engęs senasis režimas. Ištvirkinusi visuomenę, pripratinusi prie žiaurumų, sugriovusi visus autoritetus, lojalumo bei pagarbos jausmus, Revoliucija E. Burke’ui reiškė ne individualaus proto triumfą ir naujos visuomenės sukūrimą, bet apgailėtiną nusigręžimą nuo laipsniškų, kolektyvinės tradicijos išminties pasveriamų ir apdairiai išbandomų pažangių visuomenės permainų kelio.

A. Tocqueville’is pripažino, kad Revoliucija buvo Senojo režimo produktas, neišvengiamas jame brendusių procesų padarinys. Kaip ir demokratija ji, jo nuomone, buvo daugiau Europos istorijos tradicijos dalis. Tačiau A. Tocqueville’is būgštavo, kad Revoliucijos metu nugalėjęs lygybės siekis, susivienijęs su kitu naujos prancūzų visuomenės principu – valstybės centralizacija, neužgniaužtų aristokratiškai kultūrai esminio individo laisvės principo, būtino žmogiškam ir kūrybingam visuomenės vystymuisi. Tad A. Tocqueville’is laisvę ir lygybę laikė ne tik vienas kitą papildančiais ir garantuojančiais, bet ir tam tikru mąstu priešiškais elementais. Kaip tokį Tocqueville’iui iki galo nepatrauklų, pilnai demokratijos principą įgyvendinusios, tačiau į individo laisvę ir kūrybą varžančios daugumos tironiją linkusios visuomenės pavyzdį jis analizuoja Amerikos visuomenę.

This Post Has 263 Comments

  1. I just want to tell you that I am new to blogging and seriously liked you’re web blog. Almost certainly I’m likely to bookmark your site . You absolutely have incredible well written articles. Kudos for sharing your blog site.

  2. Spot up for this write-up, I really think this fabulous website needs considerably more consideration. I’ll apt to be once more to read a great deal more, thank you for that info.

  3. Well I started my blog in the beginning of March, I have 21 different entries already. How soon do you think the web crawler will pickup my blog and index it into the search engines ?.

  4. A) it is acceptable to use copyrighted material for economic gain as long as proper credit is given to the author.. . B) all original work located on the Internet is to be considered copyrighted.. . C) only items marked with the ? symbol are considered copyrighted.. . D) all Internet content is free for anyone to use..

  5. I want to create my own website but I have no experience. A classmate recommended me to instead create a blog so that I can get experience. . What free blog site should I use?. Any tips?.

  6. Woah! I’m really digging the template/theme of this site. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s difficult to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and appearance. I must say you have done a superb job with this. In addition, the blog loads very quick for me on Chrome. Exceptional Blog!

  7. I am trying to get my articles published in a newspaper or magazine. How do I protect my work? .

  8. I like what you guys are up also. Such intelligent work and reporting! Carry on the superb works guys I¡¦ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my web site 🙂

  9. I was just seeking this information for a while. After six hours of continuous Googleing, finally I got it in your website. I wonder what’s the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this kind of informative websites in top of the list. Generally the top sites are full of garbage.

  10. I want to start to put all my photos up on my camera, and start a blog or something. Where is a good place to do this like a website or something, do i have to copyright them thanks :).

  11. Excellent blog here! Also your site loads up fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  12. Hello my friend! I want to say that this post is awesome, nice written and include approximately all significant infos. I would like to peer extra posts like this .

  13. As a Newbie, I am always browsing online for articles that can aid me. Thank you

  14. Generally I do not read post on blogs, however I wish to say that this write-up very pressured me to take a look at and do it! Your writing taste has been amazed me. Thank you, very nice post.

  15. Great ¡V I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your site. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs as well as related information ended up being truly easy to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it at all. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Nice task..

  16. A lot of thanks for your entire hard work on this site. My mother loves doing internet research and it’s really easy to understand why. My spouse and i notice all relating to the dynamic way you give helpful tactics through this web blog and in addition foster participation from visitors on this point plus my princess is really studying so much. Enjoy the remaining portion of the new year. Your conducting a splendid job.

  17. My brother recommended I might like this website. He was totally right. This post actually made my day. You cann’t imagine simply how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!

  18. Very good written article. It will be supportive to anyone who utilizes it, as well as yours truly :). Keep doing what you are doing – looking forward to more posts.

  19. Great weblog here! Additionally your website loads up very fast! What web host are you the use of? Can I am getting your affiliate hyperlink on your host? I desire my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  20. I¡¦m no longer positive where you are getting your information, but great topic. I must spend some time finding out more or working out more. Thank you for great info I was in search of this information for my mission.

  21. Hello, you used to write great, but the last few posts have been kinda boring¡K I miss your super writings. Past few posts are just a bit out of track! come on!

  22. Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that they just do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  23. It’s perfect time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you some interesting things or suggestions. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article. I want to read more things about it!

  24. I’ve been surfing on-line more than three hours as of late, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It¡¦s pretty worth sufficient for me. In my view, if all website owners and bloggers made just right content as you did, the net will likely be a lot more helpful than ever before.

  25. great issues altogether, you simply won a emblem new reader. What might you recommend in regards to your submit that you just made a few days in the past? Any sure?

  26. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so much about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message home a bit, but other than that, this is magnificent blog. A fantastic read. I will definitely be back.

  27. Valuable information. Fortunate me I discovered your web site accidentally, and I’m surprised why this accident didn’t happened earlier! I bookmarked it.

  28. fantastic issues altogether, you just won a logo new reader. What might you suggest in regards to your put up that you simply made a few days ago? Any certain?

  29. Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the web the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people think about worries that they just do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  30. I will right away take hold of your rss as I can not in finding your email subscription link or e-newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please let me realize in order that I may just subscribe. Thanks.

  31. whoah this blog is fantastic i love studying your articles. Stay up the great work! You recognize, many people are hunting round for this information, you can aid them greatly.

  32. Oh my goodness! a great write-up dude. Thanks a ton Nevertheless We are experiencing problem with ur rss . Do not know why Not able to join it. Could there be everyone obtaining identical rss difficulty? Anyone who knows kindly respond. Thnkx

  33. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! Extremely helpful information specifically the last part 🙂 I care for such info a lot. I was looking for this particular info for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.

  34. Fantastic goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely wonderful. I actually like what you have acquired here, certainly like what you’re saying and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it wise. I can’t wait to read much more from you. This is really a great site.

  35. We are a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community. Your website offered us with valuable info to work on. You have done an impressive job and our entire community will be thankful to you.

  36. I keep listening to the news bulletin lecture about receiving boundless online grant applications so I have been looking around for the best site to get one. Could you tell me please, where could i get some?

  37. Great work! That is the type of information that are supposed to be shared across the net. Shame on Google for not positioning this publish higher! Come on over and consult with my website . Thank you =)

  38. Thanks for sharing excellent informations. Your site is so cool. I’m impressed by the details that you have on this site. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for extra articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched everywhere and just couldn’t come across. What a great site.

  39. As I web site possessor I believe the content matter here is rattling fantastic , appreciate it for your efforts. You should keep it up forever! Best of luck.

  40. Useful information. Fortunate me I found your website by chance, and I’m stunned why this accident did not took place in advance! I bookmarked it.

  41. Thanks for some other great post. The place else may anybody get that kind of info in such an ideal means of writing? I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I am at the search for such info.

  42. Good write-up, I¡¦m regular visitor of one¡¦s website, maintain up the nice operate, and It is going to be a regular visitor for a long time.

  43. Thank you a lot for sharing this with all folks you really know what you’re speaking about! Bookmarked. Please also seek advice from my website =). We may have a link exchange agreement among us!

  44. Great ¡V I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your web site. I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs and related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or something, site theme . a tones way for your customer to communicate. Nice task..

  45. Hello, Neat post. There is a problem together with your site in internet explorer, might check this¡K IE nonetheless is the marketplace chief and a huge component of folks will leave out your fantastic writing because of this problem.

  46. I was just searching for this info for a while. After 6 hours of continuous Googleing, finally I got it in your site. I wonder what is the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this type of informative web sites in top of the list. Generally the top web sites are full of garbage.

  47. Thank you so much for providing individuals with a very remarkable chance to read in detail from this site. It can be so fantastic plus full of fun for me and my office co-workers to search your site at a minimum thrice in a week to learn the newest guidance you will have. And lastly, I’m also always astounded for the superb creative ideas you serve. Certain 1 ideas in this posting are indeed the most beneficial I’ve ever had.

  48. Whats Taking place i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It absolutely helpful and it has helped me out loads. I’m hoping to give a contribution & assist different customers like its aided me. Great job.

  49. Hi my loved one! I wish to say that this article is amazing, great written and include almost all vital infos. I would like to see more posts like this .

  50. You made certain nice points there. I did a search on the matter and found most folks will consent with your blog.

Leave a Reply

Close Menu