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Lietuvos ežerai

Lietuvoje yra apie 6000 gamtinės kilmės ežerų. Apie 3000 ežerų – didesni kaip 0,5 ha ir yra maždaug tiek pat mažesnių kaip 0,5 ha ežerų. Visi ežerai drauge užima apie 914 km2. Šalies vidutinis ežeringumas – 1,4 %. Ežeringiausios yra Baltijos aukštumos, kurios tęsiasi nuo Vištyčio iki Drūkšių ežero. Daugiausia ežerų telkšo Aukštaičių aukštumoje, šiaurės rytų ežeryne. Ten išsiskiria mažesni – Zarasų, Dubingių, Molėtų, Ignalinos-Kaltanėnų – ežerynai. Dzūkų ir Sūduvos aukštumose susidarę palyginti nedideli Trakų, Daugų, Veisiejų ežerynai. Antra pagal ežeringum1 yra Žemaičių aukštuma, trečia – Pietryčių lyguma su nedideliais ežerais. Daug mažiau ežerų yra Vidurio ir Pajūrio žemumose.

Lietuvoje yra 13 ežerų, kurių kiekvieno plotas didesnis kaip 10 km2. Pietvakarinėje šalies dalyje telkšantis Vištyčio ežeras yra 18 km2 ploto, tačiau Lietuvai priklauso tik maža jo dalis.

Didžiausias šalyje yra Drūkšių ežeras. Jis telkšo ežeringiausioje šiaurrytinėje Lietuvos dalyje, prie sienos su Latvija ir Baltarusija. 1973 atliktų matavimų duomenimis, jis užima 44,8 km2. Iki 1953 Drūkšių ežero vandens lygis buvo natūralus, bet ant Prorvos upės (Baltarusijoje) pastačius hidroelektrinę, o vėliau – 1983 – ir Ignalinos atominę elektrinę, šio ežero vandens lygis pakilo apie metrą. Nuo 1984 Drūkšių ežero vanduo naudojamas atominės elektrinės reaktoriams aušinti. Aušinimui naudojamas vandens kiekis 9 kartus didesnis už ežero vandens tūrį (367,6 mln. m2). Iš aušinimo sistemos išleidžiamas vanduo 3–4 °C šiltesnis už įprastą ežero vandens temperatūrą, todėl dabar didelė akvatorijos dalis žiemą neužšąla. Šiltas vanduo smarkiai veikia Drūkšių ežero augaliją ir gyvūniją bei lemia visą ežero raidą.

Ilgiausias Lietuvoje yra Asvejos (dar vadinamas Dubingių) ežeras, ištįsęs 21,9 km, o su atšakomis – 29,7 km. Jis gana siauras – didžiausias plotis yra 0,9 km. Asvejos ežerą sudaro trys šakos: Žalktynės, Vyriogalos ir Dubingių, kurios neretai vadinamos įlankomis.

Giliausias Lietuvos ežeras Tauragnas. Jo gylis 60,5 m, plotas 5,1 km2, ilgis 9,5 km, didžiausias plotis 1,1 km. Gilesni kaip 40 m yra Vištyčio, Platelių, Alaušo ežerai, taip pat mažytis (20 ha) Malkėstaičio ežeras (Molėtų r.), kurio gylis 57 m.

ezeras

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