Apie viską po truputį

Apie Baltijos jūrą

Vidinė šiaurės Europos jūra priklausanti Atlanto vandenyno baseinui, kurią nuo Šiaurės jūros, o kartu ir nuo Atlanto vandenyno skiria Zundo, Mažojo ir Didžiojo Belto, Kategato ir Skagerako sąsiauriai.Ji yra 54o ir 65o50o šiaurės platumos bei 9o ir 30o 20o rytų ilgumos. Jūros bangos skalauja net 9 Europos valstybių pakrantes.

Beveik pusė jūros ploto tenka trims didelėms įlankoms- Bornijos, Rygos ir Suomijos. Pietryčiuose yra lagūnų, vadinamų mariomis: Kuršių marios, Aistmarės. Jas skiria Sambos pusiasalis. Nemaža šioje jūroje ir salų. Tai: Gotlandas, Sarema, Alandų salos, Elandas, Hyjuma, Riugenas, Bornholmas. Landsorto įduba- giliausia Baltijos jūros vieta(459m.).Šiaip jūra sekli. Vidutinis jos gylis apie 50m.

Paviršiniai vandens sluoksniai pietinėje Baltijos dalyje vasarą įšyla iki 23-24 ºC, vidurinėje dalyje- iki15-17 ºC. Botnijos įlankoje vanduo retai būna šiltesnis kaip 12-14 ºC. Prie Lietuvos krantų aukščiausia vandens paviršiaus temperatūra (21-23 ºC) būna rugpjūčio mėnesį. Žiemą vanduo atvėsta iki 2 ºC, o Botnijos, Suomijos, Rygos įlankose jo temperatūra nukrinta žemiau 0 ºC- įlankos užšąla. Labai šaltomis žiemomis ir Klaipėdos uoste susidaro plona ledo danga. Tuomet be ledlaužio neišsiverčiama. Gilesnėse jūros įdubose sezoninių temperatūros skirtumų beveik nesijaučia- vandens temperatūra paprastai esti 4-5ºC.

Vandens druskingumas nedidelis, 3 kartus mažesnis negu Atlanto vandenyno. Gilesnėje vakarinėje jūros dalyje jis siekia 1,7%, prie Lietuvos krantų 0,6-0,8%, o šiauriausioje Botnijos įlankoje- tik 0,2%. Toliau į šiaurę vanduo dar gėlesnis.

Tokį jūros vandens druskingumą lemia keletas veiksnių. Į Baltiją įteka apie 250 upių, atplukdančių daug gėlo vandens. Per metus jūroje iškrinta 500-1000 mm kritulių. Baltijos jūros vandens lygis 14 cm aukštesnis už Atlanto, todėl vandens perteklius sąsiauriais srūva į Šiaurės jūrą, o iš ten druskingas vanduo siaurų sąsiaurių dugnu kur kas sunkiau prasiskverbia į Baltiją, Seklumos ir Alandų salos jam trukdo laisvai tekėti į Botnijos įlanką. Jeigu į gilumines Baltijos jūros įdubas sūrūs Atlanto vandenys nepatenka ilgesnį laiką, čia susidaro vadinamosios ,,stovinčio vandens‘‘, arba stagnacijos, sąlygos, deguonis beveik visiškai išnyksta, susikaupia nemalonus, pūvančio kiaušinio kvapo sieros vandenilis, kurio kiekis kartais viršija 2 ml/l vandens. Paviršiniai vandenys (iki 50-80 m gylio) deguonimi įsodrinti žymiai geriau.Be deguonies, organiniam pasauliui gyvuoti būtini ir kiti, vadinami biogeniniai cheminiai elementai, padedantys gyvūnams ir augalams statytis savo skeletus. Svarbiausi jų- fosforas, azotas, silicis, Pagrindinis šių elementų kiekis į Baltijos vandenis pakliūva iš sausumos vandenų. Reikia pabrėžti, kad fosforo kiekis jūros vandenyse, o ypač stagnacijos zonose, metai iš metų didėja. Todėl Baltijos jūra yra labai nešvari.

Prie Baltijos daug didelių uostų, pramoninių objektų. Iš miestų, žemės ūkio rajonų, pramonės įmonių kasmet patenka apie 100000 t įvairių nuodingųjų medžiagų. Jūra kenčia ir nuo laivų, gabenančių naftos produktus. Naftos kiekis nuo kurio jūra pajėgia pati apsivalyti, yra 0,3 mg viename litre vandens. Tačiau į jūrą išsiliejusios naftos kiekis kai kur siekia nuo 0,2 iki 15,5 mg viename litre.

Baltija yra vidinė jūra, vandens mainai tarp jos ir Atlanto vandenyno vyksta labai lėtai: vanduo Baltijoje visiškai pasikeičia per 30 metų. Dėl lėtos vandens kaitos ir didelės taršos iš tankiai gyvenamų pramonės ir intensyvaus žemės ūkio rajonų Baltija yra viena labiausiai užterštų jūrų pasaulyje. Į ją patekusios nuodingosios medžiagos išlieka ilgiau negu kitose jūrose, kaupiasi vandenyje, gyvuosiuose organizmuose.

Situacija šiek tiek keičiasi, nes prie miestų statomi vandens valymo įrenginiai, laukai į Baltiją įtekančių upių baseinuose mažiau tręšiami mineralinėmis trąšomis, jūra plaukioja naujesni ir modernesni laivai. Visa tai mažina jūros taršą, tačiau gerų rezultatų galima pasiekti tik bendromis visų Baltijos jūros regiono valstybių pastangomis.

Baltijoje gausu žuvų, tik jų įvairovė nedidelė (apie 100 rūšių).Gėlavandenėms žuvims jūros vanduo kiek per sūrus, kad galėtų daugintis. Dėl to gėlavandenės Baltijos žuvys- tai ateivės iš kuršių marių ar upių. Jūrinėms žuvims Baltijos vanduo turi per mažai druskų, todėl tik nedaugelis tikrų jūrinių žuvų čia prisitaikė gyventi ir daugintis. Baltijos jūroje užsiimama žvejyba. Svarbiausios verslinės žuvys: silkės, menkės, strimėlės, bretlingiai, plekšnės, starkiai, lašišos, sykai. Plaukioja daug pramoninių laivų. Iš žinduolių Baltijos šiaurinėje dalyje gyvena ruoniai. Jų pasitaiko ir prie Lietuvos krantų. Augalija taip pat negausi. Toliau nuo kranto auga rudieji ir raudonieji dumbliai, kuriuos per audrą bangos išmeta į krantą…

baltijos jura

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